The attachment theory was developed from observing the distress of an infant separated from the parent's primary support to the infant by John Bowlby. The theory shows people's attachment behavior, which shows people's dependence on others. The key concepts of the attachment theory are infant attachment behaviors, adult attachment behaviors, and the environment of attachment patterns (Levy & Johnson, 2019). Infant attachment behaviors will exhibit when separated from the parent by crying for long hours and will show distress due to lack of primary support from the mother. The adult's attachment behavior will include the relationships and individual attachments in various fields, like the patient to nurse. The attachment environment will be crucial to people's behaviors, and people will be easily attached to an environment where they feel safe from harm. The people will develop defense mechanisms and avoid attachment in cases of the environment people are exposed to is unsafe. The attachment behavior changes as people develop from infancy to adulthood.
Attachment theory is crucial in the healthcare system in establishing the relationship between the nurse and patients. The attachment of nurses to patients improves service delivery through the capability to understand the needs of the patients better. The nurse applies the attachment theory in changing patients' perceptions concerning treatment to promote patient care. The attachment to patients provides better information to the nurses enabling them to provide more personalized treatments. Attachment is crucial in health care, and helping a caregiver enables the children to avoid dismissive behavior due to trauma during infancy (Xiaoyun & Fenglan, 2020). The healthcare system uses attachment theory in broad functions, improving the lives of patients and nurses.
In parents' attachment to infants in the health care system, the nurse helps anxious parents to promote healthy attachment. The infant's attachment to parents depends on the parents caring for and changing the distressing behaviors to create a safe environment for the infants (Gurwitch et al., 2020). The parents must also possess positive views of themselves and the infants to promote a healthy attachment. The parents and infant attachment are crucial to the social support of the infant for reducing stress and promoting good health. A safe environment reducing stress leads to better mental health in infants. The insecure attachments lead to the risk of mental distress and disorder like depression.
Gurwitch, R. H., Salem, H., Nelson, M. M., & Comer, J. S. (2020). Leveraging parent-child interaction therapy and telehealth capacities to address the unique needs of young children during the COVID-19 public health crisis. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S82.
Levy, K. N., & Johnson, B. N. (2019). Attachment and psychotherapy: Implications from empirical research. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 60(3), 178.
Xiaoyun, C., & Fenglan, L. (2020). The relationships among insecure attachment, social support and psychological experiences in family caregivers of cancer inpatients. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 44, 101691.
In the nursing practice, the theory of attachment dictates that children consistently experiencing responsive and sensitive forms of care face the likelihood of developing expectations of others being supportive and available during times of need. Attachment entails elements such as affection, mutual satisfaction affiliations amid children and their caregivers or parents. The parents are vital in making certain that a child embraces the feeling of safety, security, and protection. Based on basic information on the theory of attachment, a child’s early encounters with parents affects their future mental health well-being. Thriving emotionally and developing mentally requires a child to experience the mutual affection relationship with parents.
Nurses promoting an attachment system is ideal step for making certain the parent is close to offer protection for infant in case there are incidences of physical and psychological dangers. Well-loved infant is likely to protest over the separation from parents despite the possibility of becoming self-reliant in future (Mo et al., 2021). The parent-child attachment (PCA) mode of protection happens to be among the few factors applied in the determination of upcoming socio-emotional functioning besides the mental health and physical threats intended for a better health outcome (Yin et al., 2021). For communities that favor their children, it is mandatory to ensure that the parents are equally cherished. Nursing discipline has held a major interest in the promotion of child health whereby the nurses are close towards young child’s families.
Describing the parent-child attachment was an inconsistent outcome within nursing literature that slowed developments of the practice around the particular location. The nursing practice will constantly be enhanced through an effective understanding of the theory of attachment (Ali et al.,2021). Nurses have to be better prepared to offer support by augmenting the likelihood of protected attachment development while appropriate enhancement is made on long-term health outcomes.
A child's attachment to their parents or caregivers is characterized by feelings of affection and shared contentment. The parents play a crucial role in ensuring that a child feels safe, secure, and protected. The theory of attachment states that a child's early interactions with their parents have an impact on their mental health in the future. In addition to the physical and mental threats to a better health outcome, the parent-child attachment (PCA) mode of protection is one of the few factors used in the determination of future socio-emotional functioning. An effective understanding of the theory of attachment will constantly improve nursing practice.
Ali, E., Letourneau, N., & Benzies, K. (2021). Parent-Child Attachment: A Principle-Based Concept Analysis. SAGE open nursing, 7, 23779608211009000. https://doi.org/10.1177/23779608211009000
Mo, X., Wang, Z., & Shao, J. (2021). Parent-child attachment and good behavior habits among Chinese children: Chain mediation effect of parental involvement and psychological Suzhi. PloS one, 16(1), e0241586. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241586
Yin, H., Qian, S., Huang, F., Zeng, H., Zhang, C. J. P., & Ming, W. K. (2021). Parent-Child Attachment and Social Adaptation Behavior in Chinese College Students: The Mediating Role of School Bonding. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 711669. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.711669
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